Since the turn of the century, the topics of women’s emancipation and feminism have more or less disappeared from public discourse, in church circles as well. At least, this is what happened in the Netherlands. Feminism and women’s emancipation fell victim, so to say, to their own success. In Eastern Europe, however, things are more complex, as was clearly shown at the biennial regional conference of the European Society of Woman in Theological Research that took place in Split, Croatia, from 2 to 5 September 2012.* There, it became apparent that women’s issues have not been given any priority whatsoever within the Orthodox, Protestant or Roman Catholic Churches. And what is more, they are considered with great suspicion or the study thereof is merely tolerated. Continue reading
De kerk vervrouwelijkt. Al jaren is er een proces gaande van “feminisering”, waardoor steeds meer vrouwen en steeds minder mannen in de kerk actief zijn. Het verschijnsel treedt op zowel in West- als in Oost-Europa, ook in de katholieke Kerk. Deze ontwikkeling heeft bijvoorbeeld tot gevolg gehad dat het contrast tussen wat er in en wat er buiten de kerk gebeurt gaandeweg groter werd. Buiten de kerk kregen vrouwen een steeds belangrijkere en actievere maatschappelijke rol toebedeeld, terwijl daarbinnen dit proces kritisch werd en wordt bezien. Continue reading
Exactly 200 years after the French and 400 years after the Polish armies occupied Moscow and were subsequently chased from Russian territory, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia visited Poland. There he met with his flock and, more importantly, with the president of the Polish Roman Catholic Bishops conference Archbishop Józef Michalik of Przemyśl. In Warsaw they signed a common “pastoral” declaration calling for “dialogue, restoration of mutual trust and for rapprochement between the Russian and Polish nations in face of common Christian responsibility and the need to solve the same problems today.” Continue reading
What kind of country is Ukraine when it comes to alcohol? As a matter of fact, it is an astonishingly liberal country. The evil of alcohol abuse is allowed to roam about without much hindrance.
Alcohol abuse may well be the greatest evil in society, yet children can freely buy it, publicity is omnipresent and it is not uncommon to have a pint of beer out on the street, before midday. On festive days, parents encourage their children to drink, and this from a tender age. Beer used to be rather something for women and girls, but this is changing for the worse. Officially, drinking age is at 18 as is purchasing age, but this legislation is not being enforced. For sure, there does exist a “National Alcoholic Tradition” – see the NAT internet advertisement (pictured above on the left). Continue reading
Four days ago I returned from a trip to Ukraine. Even if this was my fifteenth or so visit since 1996, it was a great experience and it is really amazing to see how much the country has changed. Back in 1996 Ukraine was a dreary place with few colours and just a handful of cars on the streets. Probably, the country looked very much similar to what it was before the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. This situation has changed completely. Continue reading
The library of Communicantes contains a nice collection of books, many of which date back to the Cold War era. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, they became obsolete and started a new life as historical source. Recently, however, I came across an interesting 1983 publication by the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate: The Lvov Church Council. Although it deals with a church council in 1946, the book hadn’t lost much of its relevance. Back then, seventy-odd years ago, it was decided to unite the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, which was loyal to the Pope of Rome since 1596, with the Russian Orthodox Church. In Greek Catholic circles this church meeting was dubbed ‘pseudo-council’, because it was not a spontaneous popular initiative at all, but a well-orchestrated KGB-secret service operation, instigated by the communist leadership in Moscow. Continue reading
This post discusses the way in which some scholars deal with the issue of the Roman Catholic Church and the holocaust between 1941 and 1945.
It has been said that Pope Pius XII was an anti-Semite, that he did not care for the plight of the Jews, that he was not a decisive pope, or that he did not speak out enough on behalf of the persecuted Jews. On the contrary, scholars, Roman Catholics and non-believers say that Pope Pius XII did exactly what was needed and possible in those days of war and destruction. Personally, I don’t think that this Pope was an anti-Semite or that he was insensitive, but if we look at how the Roman Catholic Church acted and reacted to the holocaust at the local level, it is not so very clear how Pius XII managed his Church during WWII. Sometimes authors rather leave difficult questions like these aside. Continue reading
The European Football Championship “Euro 2012” kicks off on 8 June 2012 with Poland-Greece at the National Stadium in Warsaw and finishes on 1 July at the Olympic Stadium in Kiev. Matches will be played in Poland and in Ukraine. Church circles as well have taken vivid interest in the event that will draw crowds of football fans to the cities of Donetsk, Kharkiv, Kyiv and Lviv in Ukraine and Gdansk, Poznan, Warsaw en Wroclaw in Poland. Continue reading
Last Summer in Lviv, by chance, I ran into Marco Carynnyk, a Canadian citizen of Ukrainian descent. Marco and I, we quickly discovered, share a common interest: the holocaust in Eastern Europe. A while ago he send me his very interesting article “Foes of our rebirth: Ukrainian nationalist discussions about Jews, 1929-1947” (read abstract). I was surprised. Actually, Marco Carynnyk is one of the few nationals or emigrants from Eastern Europe I have met or read, who study the recent history of their forefathers without embellishments or excuses. Continue reading
Why actually God came to live among us? At Christmas, God shakes hands with mankind, saying that life is good, in spite of sorrow, pain, war and crisis. But that’s not all! God shakes hands with all mankind and softly pulls it towards Him. Similarly, we must try to reach out to our fellow man and make this world a better place, in all things, big and small, for ourselves and for others. For example: we must always try see the good in other people and try to make their life more enjoyable; and on a more global scale: war must end; tears must be wiped away; the hungry must be fed. And if we do well, we come closer to God and God will reveal Himself in all things, big and small. Continue reading
‘The Church knew about abuse, its policy failed.’ It is one of the conclusions in a detailed and well-researched report of the Deetman Commission about sexual abuse of minors in the Dutch Roman Catholic Church from 1945 to 2010. On Friday 16 December 2011 the independent commission of inquiry presented its findings.(1) Since WW II about 10 to 20 thousand minors fell victim to various degrees of sexual abuse by some 800 members of the clergy, members of orders and congregations, or lay workers. The commission started its work in 2010 with the former Minister of Education Wim Deetman as its president. Researchers had unlimited access to church archives.(2) Continue reading
The conference ‘Churches in Ukraine’ was held on 26 November 2011 at the picturesque Hernen Castle. Four key note speakers had been invited. Dr. Heleen Zorgdrager, who is visiting professor at the Ukrainian Catholic University in Lviv since 2005, and Ukrainian nationals Father Roman Fihas MA, drs. Julia Hoppenbrouwers-Nagornyak and Mariana Kavinska MA demonstrated their intimate knowledge of Church in Ukraine. Furthermore, Professor Nico Schreurs, president of the Foundation Communicantes, spoke about the history and mission of the foundation. Editor-in-chief Father Dolf Langerhuizen introduced the audience to the review Pokrof. The conference ‘Churches in Ukraine’ was organised by the Foundation Communicantes and the review Pokrof, and was hosted by the Bredius Foundation. It is the aim of the Bredius Foundation to enhance knowledge of Byzantine culture among scholars and the general public. Continue reading